Chapter 7 bankruptcy cases are usually straightforward. On rare occasions, complications arise if creditors take aggressive action, if the trustee thinks you are hiding assets, or if you want to challenge creditors’ claims.
Who can file? Any individual who lives in the United States or has property or a business in the United States can file a chapter 7 bankruptcy. If you received a chapter 7 bankruptcy discharge within the past eight years, you are disqualified from receiving a discharge in chapter 7. A similar disqualification may also apply if you received a discharge within the past six years in a chapter 13 case in which your unsecured creditors were paid less than 70% of what they were owed.
What is the means test? In 2005, Congress added the “means test” to the bankruptcy law to make it more difficult for wealthy consumers to file chapter 7 bankruptcy. Most consumers who file for bankruptcy are not affected by this change. If your income is below the median in Pennsylvania, you are protected by a “safe harbor” and not subject to the means test. The current median family income figures for Pennsylvania are available on the website for the Untied States Trustee Program at: http://www.usdoj.gov/ust.
What are the first steps? The first step in a chapter 7 bankruptcy is completion of certain basic forms. These include a three-page initial “petition.” You will also need to file a certificate from an approved credit counseling agency. A number of other forms must also be filed either at the same time of the petition or shortly afterwards. These include your statement of financial affairs, statement of intentions with respect to certain secured debts, statement of monthly income and means test calculations, copies of any pay stubs you received from an employer during the sixty days before filing your bankruptcy case; and a set of schedules listing all your debts, assets, income, and expenses. It is important that all of these forms be filled out completely and accurately.
What are common mistakes? A chapter 7 bankruptcy is often called a “liquidation” bankruptcy because the debtors assets are examined by the court appointed trustee and any “unexempt” assets are typically sold for the benefit of creditors. Frequently overlooked assets include tax refunds, child support arrearages, security deposits, pledged goods at pawnbrokers, personal injury claims, other legal claims, and the cash value of life insurance policies.